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Nanital

NANITAL

Nainital (KumaoniNaintālpronounced [nɛnːtaːl]) is a town and headquarters of Nainital district of Kumaon divisionUttarakhandIndia. It is the judicial capital of Uttarakhand, the High Court of the state being located there and is the headquarters of an eponymous district. It also houses the Governor of Uttarakhand, who resides in the Raj Bhavan. Nainital was the summer capital of the United Provinces.

Nainital is located in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas at a distance of 285 km (177 mi) from the state capital Dehradun and 345 km (214 mi) from New Delhi, the capital of India. Situated at an altitude of 1,938 metres (6,358 ft) above sea level, the town is set in a valley containing an eye-shaped lake, approximately two miles in circumference, and surrounded by mountains, of which the highest are Naina Peak (2,615 m (8,579 ft)) on the north, Deopatha (2,438 m (7,999 ft)) on the west, and Ayarpatha (2,278 m (7,474 ft)) on the south. From the tops of the higher peaks, “magnificent views can be obtained of the vast plain to the south, or of the mass of tangled ridges lying north, bound by the great snowy range which forms the central axis of the Himalayas.” The hill station attracts tourists round the year.

Nainital has historically been a part of the Kumaon region. After the fall of Katyuri Dynasty in 10th century, Kumaon was divided into several small princely states, and the region around Nainital was under various branches of a Khasiya family. The first dynasty to achieve consolidated dominance over Kumaon after the Katyuris was the Chand dynasty, but it took many centuries and Nainital and its surroundings were one of the last areas to be absorbed. Trilok Chand had built a fort at Bhimtal in the thirteenth century, But at that time, Nainital itself was not under the Chand rule, and was situated near the western border of the Kingdom. During the reign of Udyan Chand, the western boundary of the Chand kingdom extended to the Koshi and Suyal rivers, but Ramgarh and Kota were still under the former Khasia rule. Kirat Chand, who ruled from 1488 to 1503 was finally able to establish authority over Nainital and the surrounding region. The Khasia chiefs made an attempt to regain their independence in 1560, when they enjoyed a brief moment of success under the leadership of a Khasiya of Ramgarh, but were later subdued with ruthlessness by Balo Kalyan Chand.

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